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There is a large evidence base that links the home environment with children’s literacy and numeracy attainment, both in high-income and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, recent studies drawing from the behavioural genetics literature have suggested that this association, in part, reflects masked genetic influences. In this talk, I will discuss the joint role of home environment and parental skills on the literacy and numeracy skills of children from disadvantaged communities in Cebu City, Philippines. Both ‘traditional’ home environment measures and direct measures of parental literacy and numeracy have been taken into account.