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Changes of cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction from 8.5 to 38.5 months of age were compared in two infant groups in the Cambridge population: "infant myopes", having at least one myopic axis (0 to -3.5 D inclusive), and a second, "control" group with low hyperopia (< or = +3.5 D). Cycloplegia eliminated the variable accommodation of infants. The myopic group showed a significant emmetropization of the mean spherical equivalent towards low hyperopia by 3 yr. There was no significant change in the control group's mean spherical equivalent power. Both groups showed a significant reduction in astigmatism with age. Analysis of the vertical and horizontal powers showed significant "emmetropization" of these meridians, in both groups, towards low hyperopia from 8.5 to 38.5 months. These meridional emmetropization changes were significant for both With-the-Rule and Against-the-Rule astigmatism.


Journal article


Vision Res

Publication Date





1313 - 1324


Aging, Astigmatism, Child, Preschool, Cyclopentolate, Humans, Infant, Longitudinal Studies, Myopia, Ophthalmoscopy, Refraction, Ocular