Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between national and religious identification, Bicultural Identity Integration (BII), and Social Identity Complexity (SIC) among Muslim adolescents in the UK (Study 1, n = 773, M = 17.5 years) and the U.S. (Study 2, n = 190, MW1 = 14.1 years). Using person-oriented approaches, we identified four groups of adolescents. The two largest groups in both national contexts were “religiously-oriented strong dual identifiers” and “equally-strong dual identifiers”. The latter experienced less BII distance and more BII conflict, and perceived their identities as more similar and overlapping. These findings highlight that nuanced differences in strong dual identity patterns and trajectories have implications for how strong dual identities are experienced and perceived.

Original publication




Journal article


Self and Identity

Publication Date