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This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of in-groups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modern theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility.

Original publication

DOI

10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135109

Type

Journal article

Journal

Annu Rev Psychol

Publication Date

2002

Volume

53

Pages

575 - 604

Keywords

Conflict (Psychology), Humans, Interpersonal Relations, Prejudice, Psychological Theory, Social Dominance, Social Identification, Social Perception, Stereotyping