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We conducted secondary analyses of data from two random samples of the population of Northern Ireland, involving 1046 participants in 2000, and 1000 participants in 200 1, to explore the role of in-group identity and religious group membership in moderating the relationship between in-group and out-group affect. In both surveys the results indicated a general in-group bias - feeling thermometer ratings (affect) for the in-group exceeded those for the out-group. This effect was moderated by participants' in-group identification and religious group (Catholic or Protestant), but these moderations also varied as a function of differential sectarian tension between 2000 and 2001. In both years, high identifiers and Protestants exhibited more in-group bias than low identifiers and Catholics, respectively.


Journal article


Br J Soc Psychol

Publication Date





701 - 716


Adult, Affect, Conflict (Psychology), Cooperative Behavior, Group Processes, Humans, Middle Aged, Psychometrics, Religion, Social Identification