The role of semantic knowledge and working memory in everyday tasks.
Forde EM., Humphreys GW.
We present a single case study of a patient, HG, who was severely impaired on routine everyday tasks, such as cleaning his teeth and preparing a cup of tea. We used the Action Coding System developed by Schwartz et al. (1991) to provide quantitative and qualitative measures of his performance in a number of experimental manipulations: (a) with task-congruent objects only, (b) with task-congruent objects and semantic distractors, (c) with a set of written commands to follow, (d) when he was given one command at a time, (e) when he was shown how the task should be performed before starting himself, and (f) when the task was divided into smaller subgoals. In general, the majority of HG's errors were step omissions, perseverations, sequence errors, and semantic errors. These semantic errors are particularly interesting since HG was able to name, gesture to, and define all the objects when they were presented in isolation or in task-congruent arrays. We suggest that semantic errors may arise for a number of reasons: (1) impaired access from semantic memory to a network representing action schema, (2) degradation of stored schema, and (3) behavior that is abnormally driven by the goal, by preceding actions, or by salient objects rather than by an appropriate association between these elements in working memory.