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Photorefraction of a sample of 93 infants of ages 1 day to 12 months showed that 63 percent of the subjects had astigmatism of 0.75 diopter or greater, and 12 percent greater than 2 diopters. Seventy percent of these astigmatisms were in the horizontal-vertical meridians. By comparison, only 8 percent of a sample of 26 adults tested by the same method showed astigmatism (all 0.75 to 1 diopter). The high incidence of infant astigmatism has implications for critical periods in human visual development and for infant acuity.


Journal article



Publication Date





331 - 333


Adult, Age Factors, Astigmatism, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Infant, Newborn, Diseases, Photography, Refraction, Ocular