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A new strategy based on functional data analysis (FDA) techniques is proposed to extract the lateralized readiness potential (LRP), which treats electroencephalographic data as functional data. This FDA-based method combines longitudinal information from each trial (time series data) with cross-sectional information from all trials at a fixed time point (cross-sectional data). The comparison results show that the FDA-based LRP is closer to the assumed true LRP and is more robust against a reduction in the number of trials than the traditional average-based LRP. Furthermore, the results indicate that the onset of an FDA-based LRP is more accurate than that of an average-based LRP under several measuring criteria.

Original publication




Journal article


J Neurosci Methods

Publication Date





94 - 101


Cross-Sectional Studies, Evoked Potentials, Humans, Random Allocation, Statistics as Topic, Time Factors