Interventions for improving numerical abilities: present and future.
Cohen Kadosh R., Dowker A., Heine A., Kaufmann L., Kucian K.
Low numeracy skills have a negative impact on the employment prospects and mental and physical health of individuals, and on the economic status of countries. Clearly, this is a high priority area where efficient strategies for intervention can lead to a better outcome, especially when implemented at an early age. We discuss here present and future directions for intervention. The development of such interventions has been based on the study of numerical difficulties through methods ranging from standardized tests to behavioral measures to neuroimaging. The intervention techniques range from group-based interventions targeted at strengths and weaknesses in specific components of arithmetic, to educational computer-games, to non-invasive brain-stimulation. We discuss the principles behind each method, the current evidence, and future directions.