Neuronal oscillations and functional interactions between resting state networks.
Lei X., Wang Y., Yuan H., Mantini D.
Functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies showed that resting state activity in the healthy brain is organized into multiple large-scale networks encompassing distant regions. A key finding of resting state fMRI studies is the anti-correlation typically observed between the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the default mode network (DMN), which - during task performance - are activated and deactivated, respectively. Previous studies have suggested that alcohol administration modulates the balance of activation/deactivation in brain networks, as well as it induces significant changes in oscillatory activity measured by electroencephalography (EEG). However, our knowledge of alcohol-induced changes in band-limited EEG power and their potential link with the functional interactions between DAN and DMN is still very limited. Here we address this issue, examining the neuronal effects of alcohol administration during resting state by using simultaneous EEG-fMRI. Our findings show increased EEG power in the theta frequency band (4-8 Hz) after administration of alcohol compared to placebo, which was prominent over the frontal cortex. More interestingly, increased frontal tonic EEG activity in this band was associated with greater anti-correlation between the DAN and the frontal component of the DMN. Furthermore, EEG theta power and DAN-DMN anti-correlation were relatively greater in subjects who reported a feeling of euphoria after alcohol administration, which may result from a diminished inhibition exerted by the prefrontal cortex. Overall, our findings suggest that slow brain rhythms are responsible for dynamic functional interactions between brain networks. They also confirm the applicability and potential usefulness of EEG-fMRI for central nervous system drug research.