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© Springer Japan 2015. In this review, I critically evaluate a number of the key factors that have recently been shown to modulate the incorporation of a variety of non-body objects (including rubber hands, prosthetic limbs, and other stimuli external to the body of the observer), into the body representation of the observer/user. I summarize the latest findings demonstrating the physiological and neural correlates of the incorporation of non-body objects into the representation of the body. Taken together, the hope is that a number of the key insights gained from furthering our understanding of incorporation in neurologically normal and intact human participants may be helpful when it comes to trying to enhance the likelihood of the successful incorporation of prostheses and neuroprostheses in amputees and those who are unable to control the movement of their limbs.

Original publication





Book title

Clinical Systems Neuroscience

Publication Date



151 - 168