Cognitive coping and goal adjustment in people with Peripheral Arterial Disease: relationships with depressive symptoms.
Garnefski N., Grol M., Kraaij V., Hamming JF.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study relationships between cognitive coping strategies, goal adjustment processes (goal disengagement and re-engagement) and symptoms of depression in people with Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD). METHODS: The sample consisted of 88 patients with PAD. Strategies of cognitive coping, goal disengagement, goal re-engagement, and depression were measured by written questionnaires. The main statistical methods were Pearson correlations and Multiple Regression Analyses. RESULTS: The results showed that a ruminative and catastrophizing way of coping in response to the disabilities was related to more depressive symptoms in this group. In contrast, coping by seeking and re-engaging in alternative, meaningful goals was related to less depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that improvements in cognitive and goal-related coping strategies might reduce the level or risk of depressive symptomatology. This confirms the need for specific intervention programs that bring about effective changes in the coping strategies of people suffering from PAD. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: As both cognitive and goal-related coping are generally assumed to be mechanisms that are subject to potential influence and change, the results of this study provide important targets for such an intervention.