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This study investigated what happens when the discrimination strategy fails: It revisited Graven’s ‘qual-quan’ data, to compare correct and incorrect target detections made by the figure identity strategy, the global characteristics strategy, and the touch vision strategy. Do the braille readers use the same or different discrimination strategies, or; is their discrimination strategy vague in incorrect target detections? Do the braille readers rank the same, different, or no target-discriminating feature(s) as the most important? Do the braille readers use longer exploration time for incorrect than for correct target detections? When the discrimination strategy fails, they lack a repertoire of discrimination strategies, and/or the experience of using this repertoire; they have either encountered attentional load or not focussed their attention sufficiently. Individuals who are taught braille should be taught a repertoire of discrimination strategies, how to, efficiently, switch between them, and what level of attention is suitable for each one.

Original publication




Journal article


British Journal of Visual Impairment

Publication Date





121 - 129