Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.
Skip to main content

OBJECTIVE: The time course of the contingent negative variation (CNV) as well as beta-power are known to entrain to regular task rhythms, revealing implicit anticipatory timing. Thus far, these effects have been established for manual responses only. Here we investigate entrainment preceding leg movements. METHODS: High-density EEG was recorded while participants were standing and responded to series of rhythmically presented arrow stimuli by making brisk leg movements. The standard interval between reaction stimuli differed between series and was either 1500 or 2000 ms. Each series' final interval was 1750 ms, representing a timing perturbation. RESULTS: Entrainment was manifested in the CNV time course, where the maximum amplitude was reached just before the next stimulus was presented. The pattern of beta-(de)synchronization similarly entrained to the task rhythm. CNV scalp topographies suggested effector dependency of the entrainment-induced CNV. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that lower limb motor control, like upper limb control, readily entrains to a regular task rhythm. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings are relevant to Parkinson's disease (PD), where problems are found in rhythm processing and temporal preparation. Investigation of the neural correlates of leg movement entrainment is important in view of presumed relations between entrainment and cueing of gait in PD.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin Neurophysiol

Publication Date





348 - 355


Beta-oscillations, Contingent negative variation (CNV), Motor preparation, Movement cueing, Timing, Adult, Brain, Electroencephalography, Female, Gait, Humans, Leg, Male, Middle Aged, Movement, Periodicity, Photic Stimulation, Reaction Time, Young Adult