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© 2018 Hogrefe Publishing. Personal and social identity have generally been considered as separate components of individual's self-concept. In this review, after addressing classical models of personal and social identity, we focus on recent theoretical advancements. We propose possible interconnections, focusing on communalities between personal and social identity and outline how these processes, fed by social factors, can interact and influence one another. In addition, we advance the role of personal and social identity as a fundamental symbolic tool with which individuals can adapt to reality. Finally, we address the implications of identity for personal and social adjustment and inclusiveness.

Original publication




Journal article


European Psychologist

Publication Date





300 - 310