Orthoptic status and reading disability.
Bishop DV., Jancey C., Steel AM.
147 unselected 8-year-olds were given tests of intelligence, reading ability and orthoptic status, including the reference eye test described by Dunlop, Dunlop and Fenelon (1973). We failed to replicate their findings of a raised incidence of convergence deficiency, defective stereopsis and esophoria in children with specific reading disability. Furthermore, in contrast to their results, we found that crossed reference (i.e. reference eye on opposite side to preferred hand) was common in this sample and not associated with reading problems.