Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

147 unselected 8-year-olds were given tests of intelligence, reading ability and orthoptic status, including the reference eye test described by Dunlop, Dunlop and Fenelon (1973). We failed to replicate their findings of a raised incidence of convergence deficiency, defective stereopsis and esophoria in children with specific reading disability. Furthermore, in contrast to their results, we found that crossed reference (i.e. reference eye on opposite side to preferred hand) was common in this sample and not associated with reading problems.


Journal article



Publication Date





659 - 666


Brain Mapping, Child, Dominance, Cerebral, Dyslexia, Functional Laterality, Humans, Intelligence, Strabismus, Vision Disorders, Visual Acuity, Visual Cortex, Visual Fields, Visual Perception