Abstract The cognitive function of the human cerebellum could be characterized as enigmatic. However, researchers have attempted to detail the comprehensive role of the cerebellum in several cognitive processes in recent years. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we revealed different functions of bilateral cerebellar lobules in bilingual language production. Specifically, brain activation showed the bilateral posterolateral cerebellum was associated with bilingual language control, and an effective connectivity analysis built brain networks for the interaction between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, anodal tDCS over the right cerebellum significantly optimizes language control performance in bilinguals. Together, these results reveal a precise asymmetrical functional distribution of the cerebellum in bilingual language production, suggesting that the right cerebellum is more involved in language control. In contrast, its left counterpart undertakes a computational role in cognitive control function by connecting with more prefrontal, parietal, subcortical brain areas.
Oxford University Press (OUP)