Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) has a characteristic cognitive "signature" that by late childhood includes core weaknesses in attention and working memory (WM), but their earlier developmental trajectories remain uncharted. Using a combined cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal design, we tested whether early profiles of attention and WM impairment in FXS indicate developmental freeze or developmental change. In Study 1, 26 young boys with FXS and 55 typically developing (TD) boys completed two experimental paradigms designed to assess cognitive aspects of attention and WM, in addition to behavioral indices of inattention and hyperactivity. Study 2 mapped longitudinal changes in 21 children with FXS and 21 TD children. In Study 1, significant weaknesses emerged for boys with FXS, with no substantial improvement over chronological age. Mapping performance against mental age level revealed delay, but it also yielded a similar attention and WM profile to TD boys. In Study 2, longitudinal improvements for boys with FXS paralleled those in TD children. In conclusion, cognitive attention and WM, although delayed in FXS, reveal developmental change, rather than "arrest." Our findings underscore the need for going beyond cross-sectional group comparisons and gross behavioral indices to map cognitive changes longitudinally in developmental disorders.

Original publication

DOI

10.1017/S0954579412001113

Type

Journal article

Journal

Dev Psychopathol

Publication Date

05/2013

Volume

25

Pages

365 - 376

Keywords

Attention, Child, Child Development, Child, Preschool, Cross-Sectional Studies, Developmental Disabilities, Fragile X Syndrome, Humans, Intelligence, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Memory, Short-Term, Neuropsychological Tests, Prospective Studies