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The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and adjacent areas of the medial frontal cortex (MFC) have been implicated in monitoring behaviour and in detecting errors. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the ACC not only registers the occurrence of errors but also represents other aspects of the reinforcement history that are crucial for guiding behaviour. Other studies raise the possibility that dorsal MFC areas not only monitor behaviour but also actually control response selection, particularly when the task in hand is changing. Many decisions are made in social contexts and their chances of success depend on what other individuals are doing. Evaluation of other individuals is therefore crucial for effective action selection, and some ACC regions are implicated in this process.

Original publication




Journal article


Curr Opin Neurobiol

Publication Date





220 - 227


Animals, Behavior, Brain Mapping, Decision Making, Frontal Lobe, Humans, Interpersonal Relations, Learning