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In recent years, there has been something of an explosion of interest in those artworks and installations that directly foreground the bodily senses. Often referred to as proprioceptive (or prop.) art, the question to be addressed in this narrative historical review is how it should be defined, and why has it become so popular? A contrast is drawn with examples of sculpture and/or tactile art. The entertainment/experiential element of such works cannot be denied, especially in an era where funding in the arts sector is so often linked to footfall. At the same time, however, a number of the works appear to be about little more than entertainment/amusement. One might wonder why such “edutainment” should be placed in the art gallery rather than, say, in a museum of science or illusion. Nevertheless, in the best cases, the foregrounding, or removal, of bodily sensations that proprioceptive artworks deliver can potentially help to connect people in an increasingly digital, online, mostly audiovisual, and hence in some sense disembodied contemporary existence. These issues are discussed in the context of the works of Carsten Höller, a prolific German installation and object artist.
The ability to rewire ties in communication networks is vital for large-scale human cooperation and the spread of new ideas. We show that lack of researcher co-location during the COVID-19 lockdown caused the loss of more than 4,800 weak ties—ties between distant parts of the social system that enable the flow of novel information—over 18 months in the email network of a large North American university. Furthermore, we find that the reintroduction of partial co-location through a hybrid work mode led to a partial regeneration of weak ties. We quantify the effect of co-location in forming ties through a model based on physical proximity, which is able to reproduce all empirical observations. Results indicate that employees who are not co-located are less likely to form ties, weakening the spread of information in the workplace. Such findings could contribute to a better understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of human communication networks and help organizations that are moving towards the implementation of hybrid work policies to evaluate the minimum amount of in-person interaction necessary for a productive work environment.
The Oxford Cognitive Screen for use with Australian people after stroke (OCS-AU): The adaptation process and determining cut scores for cognitive impairment using a cross-sectional normative study.
INTRODUCTION: Two parallel versions (A and B) of the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) were developed in the United Kingdom (UK) as a stroke-specific screen of five key cognitive domains commonly affected post-stroke. We aimed to develop the Australian versions A and B (OCS-AU), including Australian cut-scores indicative of impairment. We hypothesised there to be no difference in performance between the UK and Australian normative data cohorts. METHODS: Our multidisciplinary expert panel used the UK pre-defined process to develop the OCS-AU versions A and B. We then conducted a cross-sectional normative study. We purposively recruited community-dwelling, Australian-born, and educated adults; with no known cognitive impairment; representative of age, sex, education level, and living location; at seven sites (four metropolitan, three regional) across four Australian states. Participants completed one or both OCS-AU versions in a randomised order. Australian cohorts were compared with the corresponding UK cohorts for demographics using Pearson's chi-squared test for sex and education, and Welch two-sample t test for age. For the cut-scores indicating cognitive impairment, the fifth (95th) percentiles and group mean performance score for each scored item were compared using Welch two-sample t tests. The pre-defined criteria for retaining OCS cut-scores had no statistically significant difference in either percentile or group mean scores for each scored item. RESULTS: Participants (n = 83) were recruited: fifty-eight completed version A [age (years) mean = 61,SD = 15; 62% female], 60 completed version B [age (years) mean = 62,SD = 13, 53% female], and 35 completed both [age (years) mean = 64,SD = 11, 54% female]. Education was different between the cohorts for version B (12 years, p = 0.002). Cut-scores for all 16 scored items for the OCS-AU version B and 15/16 for version A met our pre-defined criteria for retaining the OCS cut scores. CONCLUSIONS: The OCS-AU provides clinicians with an Australian-specific, first-line cognitive screening tool for people after stroke. Early screening can guide treatment and management.
Introduction: Stroke survivors are routinely screened for cognitive impairment with tools that often fail to detect subtle impairments. The Oxford Cognitive Screen-Plus (OCS-Plus) is a brief tablet-based screen designed to detect subtle post-stroke cognitive impairments. We examined its psychometric properties in two UK English-speaking stroke cohorts (subacute: <3 months post-stroke, chronic: >6 months post-stroke) cross-sectionally. Patients and methods: This study included 347 stroke survivors (mean age = 73 years; mean education = 13 years; 43.06% female; 74.42% ischaemic stroke). The OCS-Plus was completed by 181 sub-acute stroke survivors and 166 chronic stroke survivors. All participants also completed the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) and a subset completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and further neuropsychological tests. Results: First, convergent construct validity of OCS-Plus tasks to task-matched standardized neuropsychological tests was confirmed (r > 0.30). Second, we evaluated divergent construct validity of all OCS-Plus subtasks (r < 0.19). Third, we report the sensitivity and specificity of each OCS-Plus subtask compared to neuropsychological test performance. Fourth, we found that OCS-Plus detected cognitive impairments in a large proportion of those classed as unimpaired on MoCA (100%) and OCS (98.50%). Discussion and conclusion: The OCS-Plus provides a valid screening tool for sensitive detection of subtle cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Indeed, the OCS-Plus detected subtle cognitive impairment at a similar level to validated neuropsychological assessments and exceeded detection of cognitive impairment compared to standard clinical screening tools.
Digital CBT refers to the use of digital tools, platforms, or devices to deliver or enhance CBT assessment, formulation, treatment, training and supervision. The ‘Advances in Digital CBT’ special issue aimed to document examples of innovative digital CBT practice in this rapidly developing field. In this paper, we have briefly summarised and synthesised the advances demonstrated in this group of articles. These include developments in our understanding of mental health apps, the use of digital tools as an adjunct to therapy, the effectiveness of remotely delivered CBT in routine clinical practice, our understanding of user experiences and involvement, and in digital CBT research methods. We consider the extent of current knowledge in these areas and identify where gaps in evidence lie and how the field could be taken forward to address these. Lastly, we reflect on the broader digital CBT picture and offer our suggestions of six key directions for future research: Using robust study designs to evaluate and optimise digital tools; Translating and culturally adapting digital tools and practices; Understanding and addressing digital exclusion; Exploring, reporting and addressing possible negative effects; Improving user involvement in design and evaluation; and addressing the implementation gap for digital tools. We suggest that further advances in these areas would be of particular benefit to the digital CBT field.
Treating common mental disorder including psychotic experiences in the primary care improving access to psychological therapies programme (the TYPPEX study): protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial with nested economic and process evaluation of a training package for therapists.
INTRODUCTION: At least one in four people treated by the primary care improving access to psychological therapies (IAPT) programme in England experiences distressing psychotic experiences (PE) in addition to common mental disorder (CMD). These individuals are less likely to achieve recovery. IAPT services do not routinely screen for nor offer specific treatments for CMD including PE. The Tailoring evidence-based psychological therapY for People with common mental disorder including Psychotic EXperiences study will evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of an enhanced training for cognitive behavioural therapists that aims to address this clinical gap. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multisite, stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial. The setting will be IAPT services within three mental health trusts. The participants will be (1) 56-80 qualified IAPT cognitive behavioural therapists and (2) 600 service users who are triaged as appropriate for cognitive behavioural therapy in an IAPT service and have PE according to the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-Positive 15-items Scale. IAPT therapists will be grouped into eight study clusters subsequently randomised to the control-intervention sequence. We will obtain pseudonymous clinical outcome data from IAPT clinical records for eligible service users. We will invite service users to complete health economic measures at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients with common mental disorder psychotic experiences who have recovered by the end of treatment as measured by the official IAPT measure for recovery. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study received the following approvals: South Central-Berkshire Research Ethics Committee on 28 April 2020 (REC reference 20/SC/0135) and Health Research Authority (HRA) on 23 June 2020. An amendment was approved by the Ethics Committee on 01 October 2020 and HRA on 27 October 2020. Results will be made available to patients and the public, the funders, stakeholders in the IAPT services and other researchers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN93895792.
Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt and shame, motivate the adherence to social norms, including to norms for prosociality. The relevance of an observing audience to the expression of negative self-conscious emotions remains poorly understood. Here, in two studies, we investigated the influence of being observed on 4- to 5-year-old children's (N = 161) emotional response after failing to help someone in need and after failing to complete their own goal. As an index of children's emotional response, we recorded the change in children's upper body posture using a motion depth sensor imaging camera. Failing to help others lowered children's upper body posture regardless of whether children were observed by an audience or not. Children's emotional response was similar when they failed to help and when they failed to complete their own goal. In Study 2, 5-year-olds showed a greater decrease in upper body posture than 4-year-olds. Our findings suggest that being observed is not a necessary condition for young children to express a negative self-conscious emotion after failing to help or after failing to complete their own goal. We conclude that 5-year-olds, more so that 4-year-olds, show negative emotions when they fail to adhere to social norms for prosociality.