Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Person with virtual reality headset

The gameChange automated VR program is designed to treat agoraphobia in patients with psychosis. In the largest ever clinical trial of virtual reality for mental health, gameChange especially helped people whose anxiety had previously left them virtually housebound.

The gameChange VR program was developed by a multi-partner team of university, health and industry experts including Oxford University spin-out: OxfordVR, creators of immersive technology for mental health.

Published today, in The Lancet Psychiatry, the gameChange VR program is led by researchers at the University of Oxford and Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, and targets a problem that is common in people diagnosed with psychosis: intense fears about being outside in everyday situations. For many patients, these fears develop into a severe agoraphobia that means they avoid leaving the home, severely disrupting relationships with family and friends, their education, and careers. 

Professor Daniel Freeman, lead researcher, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford and NIHR Senior Investigator, said:


'Virtual reality psychological therapy has come of age with gameChange. Over the past 25 years VR has been used in a small number of specialist mental healthcare clinics. It has supported in-person therapy delivered by a clinician. However, with gameChange, the therapy is built in, so it can be overseen by a range of staff. And it can be delivered in a variety of settings, including patients' homes.

'We are delighted that gameChange has produced excellent results for people with some of the most challenging mental health problems. Individuals who were largely housebound have got back outside. Using today's affordable and easy-to-use consumer VR equipment, we think gameChange will lead a transformation in the digital provision of evidence-based psychological therapy, with deployment at scale for treatments that really work.'

gameChange led to significant reductions in the avoidance of everyday situations and in distress. However, the patients who benefitted most significantly were those who found it hardest to leave the house, and those with most psychiatric symptoms, such as severe anxiety, depression, delusions, and hallucinations. These patients experienced large benefits – for example, being able to undertake activities they had previously found unthinkable. These benefits were maintained at the six-month follow-up. Patient feedback showed that the treatment was very popular, with very high up-take rates.

Access to effective psychological therapies has been hampered by a shortage of clinicians. The problem is especially acute for people with severe mental health difficulties, such as psychosis. Patients are keen to try psychological interventions, but seldom receive them. Automated VR, with an in-built virtual coach, offers an innovative and effective way out of this impasse.

Dr Felicity Waite, clinical psychologist in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, said:


'The gameChange program provides an engaging, active therapy. In a safe place, patients learn by doing, practising real-life activities such as buying a coffee or getting on a bus, which helps them develop the confidence to take on real-world challenges. Feedback from participants shows that people of all ages really enjoy the gameChange experience. They find it easy to use. And they are often amazed at the progress it has helped them to make.'

Professor Mike Lewis, NIHR i4i Programme Director, said:


'This impressive research exemplifies what NIHR aims to achieve through its i4i funding scheme – truly transformational technology that can change people's lives for the better. We're really excited about the potential for gameChange to bring the benefits of psychological therapy to many more people in their own homes through the medium of virtual reality.'

Professor David M Clark, Chair of Clinical Psychology in the Department of Experimental Psychology and a co-author on this research, said: 


The gameChange trial shows that virtual reality can help people with disabling mental health problems to overcome fears that hold them back from fully participating in everyday life. It has the potential to markedly improve the lives of many people


Participants in the gameChange trial commented:

'gameChange therapy changed my life. I'm more confident in myself. I'm more confident around other people. I see gameChange helping everyone. I think everyone's going to be using it.'

'If anyone has the opportunity to do the virtual reality treatment, I really would recommend it because it's made a lot of difference to me. After seven years of illness, I do feel so much better. I've been able to make eye contact with people more, without feeling really anxious, I've been able to walk down a street without worrying about anyone walking towards me. I'm now able to go into a café. I feel much more confident about going on a bus. I just feel so much more confident than I was.'

This research is funded by a multimillion-pound award from the UK Department of Health: the inaugural National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) i4i (Invention for Innovation) Mental Health Challenge Award. It was also supported by the NIHR Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centre.


Read the full paper in The Lancet Psychiatry.

About gameChange

gameChange was designed in collaboration with people with lived experience of psychosis, with over five hundred hours of patient feedback, facilitated by the McPin Foundation, a mental health research charity that champions lived experience in research, and the Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design at the Royal College of Art. Over six sessions comprising three hours in VR, users practise being in simulations of everyday situations: a café, shop, pub, street, doctor's surgery, and a bus. Treatment is personalised: patients can choose what they work on and when, and find the "sweet spot" of safety and challenge in order to overcome their fear.

gameChange was trialled with 346 patients with psychosis in nine NHS Trusts across five English regions - Bristol, Manchester, Newcastle, Nottingham, and Oxford:

  • Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust
  • Cumbria, Northumberland, Tyne, and Wear NHS Foundation Trust
  • Avon and Wiltshire Mental Health Partnership (AWP) NHS Trust
  • Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust
  • Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust
  • Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust
  • Northamptonshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust
  • Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust (Milton Keynes)
  • Pennine Care NHS Foundation Trust.

For more information about gameChange VR.


This article has been adapted from the one originally published on the website of the Department of Psychiatry, Oxford.