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The article assesses a disapproval–respect model of tolerance according to which tolerance is made possible when disapproval of others' beliefs, preferences, or practices is balanced by respect for them as equal fellow citizens. Employing a sample of Muslims living in Germany, we predicted and found that such respect was more predictive of outgroup toleration when respondents disapproved rather than approved of the outgroups' beliefs, preferences, or practices. Moreover, respondents who displayed the critical combination of extreme disapproval and full respect indeed showed outgroup toleration. A parallel pattern of results was observed for willingness to engage in intergroup cooperation. Practical implications are discussed.

Original publication




Journal article


British Journal of Social Psychology



Publication Date





375 - 383