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Dynamic interactions between brain networks underlie complex brain functions. Thus, the ability to externally modulate brain dynamics has great potential as a tool for both basic research and therapy. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a non-invasive neurostimulation technique by which alternating currents are applied through the skull. TACS is emerging as a viable tool to study and modify the activity of brain networks.

However, the traditional application of tACS, as well as other classical stimulation techniques, suffers from three main limitations: 1) verifiability: the brain networks targeted by the stimulation cannot be verified without simultaneous brain imaging; 2) inter-individual variability: those stimulation parameters vary across participants due to a multitude of variables, such as age, sex, genetic polymorphisms and pathophysiology; 3) specificity: non-invasive electrical stimulation has limited capability for use in deep structures. In this talk, I will present our recent studies that aim to address these challenges.