When deciding their next move (e.g. in a chess game, or a cheese maze), a superhuman or a super-mouse would think infinitely deep into the future and consider all the possible sequences of actions and their outcomes. A terrestrial human or mouse, however, has limited time-consuming computational resources and is thus compelled to restrict its contemplation. A key theoretical question is how an agent can make the best out of her limited time and cognitive resources in order to make up her mind. In this talk, I will review several strategies, some borrowed from the artificial intelligence literature, that we and others have demonstrated that animals/humans use in the face of different cognitive limitations. These strategies include: acting based on habits, limiting the planning horizon, and forward/backward planning.