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The adaptation of behaviour to current circumstances occurs over many timescales - we respond to immediate feedback to correct errors, we adjust effort over hours of a task, and we learning to perform complex tasks over many days. A set of neurophysiological responses in the frontal lobes, including feedback responses and beta oscillations, as well as the dopaminergic system, are implicated in all of these levels of adaptation. I will show how these markers have multiple and differentiable roles at different timescales, using data from macaque monkeys providing longitudinal electrophysiology whilst performing cognitive tasks. Specifically, I will show that the relationship between feedback, dopamine, and adapted cognition is more complicated than simple models suggest. I will also show that beta oscillations reflect several forms of adaptive response, but that single trial analysis is critical to revealing separable mechanisms of beta modulation specific to each of these forms.