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Tissue O₂ can be monitored using a variety of electrochemical techniques and electrodes. In vitro and in vivo characterisation studies for O₂ reduction at carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) using constant potential amperometry (CPA) are presented. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that an applied potential of -650 mV is required for O₂ reduction at CPEs. High sensitivity (-1.49 ± 0.01 nA/μM), low detection limit (ca. 0.1 μM) and good linear response characteristics (R² > 0.99) were observed in calibration experiments performed at this potential. There was also no effect of pH, temperature, and ion changes, and no dependence upon flow/fluid convection (stirring). Several compounds (e.g. dopamine and its metabolites) present in brain extracellular fluid were tested at physiological concentrations and shown not to interfere with the CPA O₂ signal. In vivo experiments confirmed a sub-second response time observed in vitro and demonstrated long-term stability extending over twelve weeks, with minimal O₂ consumption (ca. 1 nmol/h). These results indicate that CPEs operating amperometrically at a constant potential of -650 mV (vs. SCE) can be used reliably to continuously monitor brain extracellular tissue O₂.

Original publication




Journal article


J Neurosci Methods

Publication Date





135 - 142


3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid, Animals, Brain, Carbon, Dopamine, Electrochemical Techniques, Environmental Monitoring, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, In Vitro Techniques, Male, Oxygen, Oxygen Consumption, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Serotonin, Temperature, Time Factors