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© 1969 Helen J. Richardson. All rights reserved. Counting and basic number concepts appear to be universal across cultures and to develop early, as pointed out, for example, by Dehaene (1997) and Butterworth (1999). However, numerous studies (for example the Basic Skills Agency, 1997) demonstrate that a significant number of adults experience difficulties with arithmetic and, for instance, find it difficult to carry out arithmetical tasks of a type that are important in daily life, and have negative emotional reactions to arithmetic. According to ALBSU (1992), a high proportion of adults with severe numeracy difficulties had already shown signs of arithmetical difficulties in the early school years.

Original publication





Book title

Supporting Mathematical Thinking

Publication Date



28 - 38