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since baseline levels of anxiety and arousal strongly predict the levels reached during panic challenges, expectancy effects could play a very significant role in the outcome of panic induction studies reports preliminary findings of two experiments [with panic disorder patients] investigating this hypothesis by manipulating expectancy effects directly via instructions our results show strong and consistent effects of a simple expectancy manipulation on subsequent responses to HV [hyperventilation] stress in panic patients and normal controls



Book title

Neuronal control of bodily function: Basic and clinical aspects, Vol. 3. Frontiers of stress research


Hans Huber

Publication Date



395 - 400