Decoding expectation and surprise in dementia: the paradigm of music.
Benhamou E., Zhao S., Sivasathiaseelan H., Johnson JCS., Requena-Komuro M-C., Bond RL., van Leeuwen JEP., Russell LL., Greaves CV., Nelson A., Nicholas JM., Hardy CJD., Rohrer JD., Warren JD.
Making predictions about the world and responding appropriately to unexpected events are essential functions of the healthy brain. In neurodegenerative disorders, such as frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease, impaired processing of 'surprise' may underpin a diverse array of symptoms, particularly abnormalities of social and emotional behaviour, but is challenging to characterize. Here, we addressed this issue using a novel paradigm: music. We studied 62 patients (24 female; aged 53-88) representing major syndromes of frontotemporal dementia (behavioural variant, semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, non-fluent-agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia) and typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease, in relation to 33 healthy controls (18 female; aged 54-78). Participants heard famous melodies containing no deviants or one of three types of deviant note-acoustic (white-noise burst), syntactic (key-violating pitch change) or semantic (key-preserving pitch change). Using a regression model that took elementary perceptual, executive and musical competence into account, we assessed accuracy detecting melodic deviants and simultaneously recorded pupillary responses and related these to deviant surprise value (information-content) and carrier melody predictability (entropy), calculated using an unsupervised machine learning model of music. Neuroanatomical associations of deviant detection accuracy and coupling of detection to deviant surprise value were assessed using voxel-based morphometry of patients' brain MRI. Whereas Alzheimer's disease was associated with normal deviant detection accuracy, behavioural and semantic variant frontotemporal dementia syndromes were associated with strikingly similar profiles of impaired syntactic and semantic deviant detection accuracy and impaired behavioural and autonomic sensitivity to deviant information-content (all P