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Odor naming is enhanced in communities where communication about odors is a central part of daily life (e.g., wine experts, flavorists, and some hunter-gatherer groups). In this study, we investigated how expert knowledge and daily experience affect the ability to name odors in a group of experts that has not previously been investigated in this context-Iranian herbalists; also called attars-as well as cooks and laypeople. We assessed naming accuracy and consistency for 16 herb and spice odors, collected judgments of odor perception, and evaluated participants' odor meta-awareness. Participants' responses were overall more consistent and accurate for more frequent and familiar odors. Moreover, attars were more accurate than both cooks and laypeople at naming odors, although cooks did not perform significantly better than laypeople. Attars' perceptual ratings of odors and their overall odor meta-awareness suggest they are also more attuned to odors than the other two groups. To conclude, Iranian attars-but not cooks-are better odor namers than laypeople. They also have greater meta-awareness and differential perceptual responses to odors. These findings further highlight the critical role that expertise and type of experience have on olfactory functions.

Original publication




Journal article


Cogn Sci

Publication Date





Chemosensory, Cross-cultural, Expertise, Individual differences, Odor naming, Olfaction, Adult, Aptitude, Female, Humans, Iran, Judgment, Male, Middle Aged, Names, Odorants, Olfactory Perception, Smell, Young Adult