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There is debate within the literature about whether resilience should be considered a stable character trait or a dynamic, changeable process (state). Two widely used measures to assess resilience are the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the true stability (invariance) and change across time in resilience captured by these two measures. Using the perspective of Latent State-Trait theory, the aim was to decipher if the CD-RISC and the RSA are more trait-like or more state-like and to address whether true differences in resilience between participants increased (or decreased) across time. In this longitudinal study, UK-based employees (N = 378) completed the CD-RISC (10-item version) and the RSA (33-item version, aggregated and analyzed under six parcels) at three occasions over six months. A latent-state model and latent-state model with indicator specific residual factors were utilized. The analysis suggested that both questionnaires capture trait and state components of resilience. These results contribute to the discussion about how resilience scales are measuring change and stability, and how we define resilience as a more trait-like or state-like phenomena. The findings also highlight the issue of what resilience scales are measuring and whether resilience is a quantifiable construct.

Original publication




Journal article


BMC Psychiatry

Publication Date