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The recent increase in children's use of digital media, both TV and touchscreen devices (e.g., tablets and smartphones), has been associated with developmental differences in Executive Functions (EF). It has been hypothesised that early exposure to attention-commanding and contingent stimulation provided by touchscreens may increase reliance on bottom-up perceptual processes and limit the opportunity for practice of voluntary (i.e., top-down) attention leading to differences in EF. This study tests the concurrent and longitudinal associations between touchscreen use (high use, HU ≥ 15 min/day; low use, LU 

Original publication




Journal article


Comput Human Behav

Publication Date





Cognitive flexibility, Executive function, Inhibitory control, Mobile touchscreen media, Toddler, Working memory