Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

INTRODUCTION: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the largest contributor to the global burden of injury, and in 2016 were among the five leading causes of global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). In regions with limited emergency medical services (EMS), training lay first responders (LFRs) has been shown to increase availability of prehospital care for RTIs, but sustainable mechanisms to scale these programs remain unstudied. METHODS: Using a training of trainers (TOT) model, a 5.5-h LFR training program was launched in Lagos, Nigeria. The course was taught in a hybrid fashion with primary didactics using videoconferencing software and practical breakout sessions in-person concurrently. Thirty TOTs proceeded to train 350 transportation providers as LFRs over one month. A 23-question, pre- and post-assessment was administered digitally to assess knowledge acquisition. Participants responded to a five-point Likert survey assessing instruction quality and post-course confidence. RESULTS: TOTs scored a median of 56.5 % (IQR:43.5 %,71.7 %) and 91.3 % (IQR:88.0 %,95.7 %) on the pre- and post-assessments, respectively, with bleeding control scores increasing most (+69.4 %). LFR course trainees scored a median of 34.8 % (IQR: 26.0 %, 43.5 %) and 73.9 % (IQR: 65.2 %, 82.6 %) on the pre- and post-assessments respectively, with airway and breathing increasing the most (+48.6 %). All score increases were statistically significant with p 

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date



Acute care, First responder, Prehospital, Road traffic injury, Trauma care, Virtual education