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BACKGROUND: Stroke survivors rate longer-term (> 2 years) psychological recovery as their top priority, but data on how frequently psychological consequences occur is lacking. Prevalence of cognitive impairment, depression/anxiety, fatigue, apathy and related psychological outcomes, and whether rates are stable in long-term stroke, is unknown. METHODS: N = 105 long-term stroke survivors (M [SD] age = 72.92 [13.01]; M [SD] acute NIH Stroke Severity Score = 7.39 [6.25]; 59.0% Male; M [SD] years post-stroke = 4.57 [2.12]) were recruited (potential N = 208). Participants completed 3 remote assessments, including a comprehensive set of standardized cognitive neuropsychological tests comprising domains of memory, attention, language, and executive function, and questionnaires on emotional distress, fatigue, apathy and other psychological outcomes. Ninety participants were re-assessed one year later. Stability of outcomes was assessed by Cohen's d effect size estimates and percent Minimal Clinically Important Difference changes between time points. RESULTS: On the Montreal Cognitive Assessment 65.3% scored  2 years post-event exhibited psychological difficulties including domains of cognition, mood, and fatigue, which impact long-term quality of life. Stroke is a chronic condition with highly prevalent psychological needs, which require monitoring and intervention development.

Original publication




Journal article


BMC Neurol

Publication Date





Apathy, Cognition, Fatigue, Long-term stroke, Mood, Psychological outcomes, Stroke