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We conducted two studies to test the hypothesis that respect for disapproved outgroups increases tolerance toward them. In Study 1, we employed a panel sample of supporters of the Tea Party movement in the United States and found that Tea Party supporters’ respect for homosexuals and Muslims as equal fellow citizens positively predicted Tea Party supporters’ tolerance toward these groups. There was no indication that alternative recognition processes (i.e., achievement recognition or need recognition) played a similar role in the development of tolerance. Study 2 replicated the respect–tolerance link with the experimental method and a more comprehensive measure of tolerance. In particular, it demonstrated that the link also holds with regard to tolerance in the public or political sphere. The wider implications of our research for societal pluralism are discussed.

Original publication




Journal article


Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin


SAGE Publications

Publication Date





406 - 415