Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Verbal and non-verbal vocal cues of co-operation and competition were assessed in 120 freely-formed dyadic conversations. In line with previous research, female/female dyads were found to be the most cooperative. However, in female/female conversations, cooperation decreased, and non-verbal competition increased, when males were present. Male/male conversation did not exhibit significant changes in style when a female audience was present. Mixed-sex conversations showed evidence of compromise between the two conversational styles; however, females were still significantly more cooperative in conversational style than males, and males exhibited higher levels of verbal competitiveness than females. © 2009 Akadmiai Kiad.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of Evolutionary Psychology

Publication Date





83 - 93