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We investigated derived fact strategy use in RR, an aphasic patient with severely impaired working memory (no phonological loop), and 16 neurologically healthy matched controls. Participants were tested on derived fact strategy use in multi-digit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. RR's accuracy only differed from controls in multiplication. He was as quick as controls in addition and subtraction when able to use the strategies, though significantly slower in addition, division, and multiplication without strategies. Our findings suggest the phonological loop is non-essential for multi-digit arithmetic, and derived fact strategies can help speed up arithmetic in individuals with impaired working memory.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





205 - 214


Broca’s aphasia, arithmetic, derived fact strategies, stroke, verbal working memory, Adult, Analysis of Variance, Aphasia, Broca, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Mathematical Concepts, Mathematics, Neuropsychological Tests, Reaction Time