Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Evidence suggests that intelligence is positively associated with performance on the heartbeat counting task (HCT). The HCT is often employed as measure of interoception - the ability to perceive the internal state of one's body - however it's use remains controversial as performance on the HCT is strongly influenced by knowledge of resting heart rate. This raises the possibility that heart rate knowledge may mediate the previously-observed association between intelligence and HCT performance. Study One demonstrates an association between intelligence and HCT performance (N = 94), and Study Two demonstrates that this relationship is mediated by knowledge of the average resting heart rate (N = 134). These data underscore the need to account for the influence of prior knowledge and beliefs when examining individual differences in cardiac interoceptive accuracy using the HCT.

Original publication




Journal article


Biol Psychol

Publication Date





1 - 3


Beliefs, Heartbeat counting, Intelligence, Interoception, Interoceptive accuracy, Adolescent, Adult, Awareness, Female, Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice, Heart Rate, Humans, Individuality, Intelligence, Interoception, Male, Middle Aged, Rest, Task Performance and Analysis, Young Adult