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In this review we describe the transcranial electrical stimulation techniques currently being utilized in neuroscientific research, including transcranial direct current (tDCS), alternating current (tACS) and random noise (tRNS) stimulation techniques. We explain how these techniques are used and summarise the proposed mechanisms of action for each technique. We continue by describing how each method has been utilised to alter endogenous neuronal oscillations and connectivity between brain regions and conclude by highlighting the varying effects of stimulation and discussing the future direction of these stimulation techniques in research.


Journal article


Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease


Kluwer Academic Publishers