Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

We report two experiments designed to investigate the potential use of vibrotactile warning signals to present spatial information to car drivers. Participants performed an attention-demanding rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) monitoring task. Meanwhile, whenever they felt a vibrotactile stimulus presented on either their front or back, they had to check the front and the rearview mirror for the rapid approach of a car, and brake or accelerate accordingly. We investigated whether speeded responses to potential emergency driving situations could be facilitated by the presentation of spatially-predictive (80% valid; Experiment 1) or spatially-nonpredictive (50% valid; Experiment 2) vibrotactile cues. Participants responded significantly more rapidly following both spatially-predictive and spatially-nonpredictive vibrotactile cues from the same rather than the opposite direction as the critical driving events. These results highlight the potential utility of vibrotactile warning signals in automobile interface design for directing a driver's visual attention to time-critical events or information. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original publication




Journal article


Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour

Publication Date





397 - 412