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The psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is highly effective only when it takes the form of behaviour therapy or cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Such treatment is closely linked to learning and cognitive-behavioural theories of the maintenance of OCD. The first published description of CBT came in 1966 from Meyer, in case series described as the 'modification of expectations in cases with obsessional rituals'. This work led to the treatment now known as exposure and response prevention (Rachman and Hodgson, 1980), and ultimately to cognitive-behavioural treatments (Salkovskis, 1999). © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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68 - 72