Nonrestorative sleep as a distinct component of insomnia.
Roth T., Zammit G., Lankford A., Mayleben D., Stern T., Pitman V., Clark D., Werth JL.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Explore characteristics of nonrestorative sleep (NRS) in prospectively defined subgroups of individuals with NRS symptoms, investigate whether NRS can occur independently of difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (DIS/DMS), and determine its effect on waking function. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based study comparing patterns of daytime symptoms, and their persistence, in cohorts of subjects with NRS symptoms grouped according to presence or absence of DIS and DMS. SETTING: 28 sleep centers in the US. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects reporting awakening unrestored or unrefreshed at least 3 times weekly over the previous 3 months were classified, based on self-reported sleep problems, to DIS (n = 138), DMS (n = 44), DIS+DMS (n = 125), and NRS-only (no DIS or DMS; n = 192) cohorts. Eighty healthy volunteers formed a control group. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Polysomnography confirmed DIS and/or DMS in 56/138 (41%), 18/44 (41%), and 37/125 (30%) subjects in DIS, DMS, and DIS+DMS cohorts, respectively; and absence of DIS or DMS in 115/192 (60%) NRS-only subjects and 52/80 (65%) healthy volunteers. Multiple subject-reported endpoints including the Endicott Work Productivity Scale, Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale, Restorative Sleep Questionnaire, and SF-36, showed that NRS-only subjects had significantly impaired daytime function relative to healthy volunteers, comparable to impairment affecting subjects with DIS and/or DMS. Symptoms persisted over 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that NRS can occur independently of other components of insomnia. Daytime symptoms were as severe in individuals with NRS-only as those whose NRS symptoms were combined with DIS or DMS.