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For over 20 years we have combined clinical psychological science with the best immersive VR technologies to assess, understand, and treat mental health problems.

Key Publications

Freeman, D., Lister, R., Waite, F., Galal, U., Yu, L.M., Lambe, S., Beckley, A., Bold, E., Jenner, L., Diamond, R. Kirkham, M., Twivy, E., Causier, C., Carr, L., Saidel, S., Day, R., Beacco, A., Rovira, A., Ivins, A., Nah, R., Slater, M., Clark, D.M., & Rosebrock, L. (2023). Automated virtual reality cognitive therapy versus virtual reality mental relaxation therapy for the treatment of persistent persecutory delusions in patients with psychosis (THRIVE): a parallel-group, single-blind, randomised controlled trial in England with mediation analyses. The Lancet Psychiatry, 10, 836-847.

Finnegan, S. L., Dearlove, D. J., Morris, P., Freeman, D., Sergeant, M., Taylor, S., & Pattinson, K. T. (2023). Breathlessness in a virtual world: An experimental paradigm testing how discrepancy between VR visual gradients and pedal resistance during stationary cycling affects breathlessness perception. Plos one18(4), e0270721.

Wei, S., Freeman, D., & Rovira, A. (2023). A randomised controlled test of emotional attributes of a virtual coach within a virtual reality (VR) mental health treatment. Scientific Reports, 13(1), 11517.

Badger, J. R., Rovira, A., Freeman, D., & Bowes, L. (2023). Developing a virtual reality environment for educational and therapeutic application to investigate psychological reactivity to bullying. Virtual Reality, 1-10.

Bond, J., Kenny, A., Pinfold, V., Couperthwaite, L., gameChange Lived Experience Advisory Panel, Kabir, T., Larkin, M., Petit, A., Rosebrock, L., Lambe, S., Freeman, D., Waite, F., & Robotham, D (2022). A safe place to learn: a peer research qualitative investigation of automated virtual reality cognitive therapy (gameChange). JMIR Serious Games, 11:e38065. 

Freeman, D., Lambe, S., Galal, U., Yu, L.-M., Kabir, T., Petit, A., Rosebrock, L., Dudley, R., Chapman, K., Morrison, A., O’Regan, E., Murphy, E., Aynsworth, C., Jones, J., Powling, R., Grabey, J., Rovira, A., Freeman, J., Clark, D.M., & Waite, F. (2022). Agoraphobic avoidance in patients with psychosis: severity and response to automated VR therapy in a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled clinical trial. Schizophrenia Research, 250, 50-59. 

Freeman, D., Lambe, S., Kabir, T., Petit, A., Rosebrock, L., Yu, L-M., Dudley, R., Chapman, K., Morrison, A., O’Regan, E., Aynsworth, C., Jones, J., Murphy, E., Powling, R., Galal, U., Grabey, J., Rovira, A., Martin, J., Hollis, C., Clark, D.M., Waite, F., & gameChange Trial Group (2022). Automated virtual reality therapy to treat agoraphobic avoidance and distress in patients with psychosis (gameChange): a multicentre, parallel-group, single-blind, randomised, controlled trial in England with mediation and moderation analyses. Lancet Psychiatry, 9, 375–388.

Freeman, D., Rosebrock, L., Waite, F., Loe, B.S., Kabir, T., Petit, A., Dudley, R., Chapman, K., Morrison, A., O’Regan, E., Aynsworth, C., Jones, J., Murphy, E., Powling, R., Peel, H., Walker, H., Bryne, R., Freeman, J., Rovira, A., Galal, U., Yu, L-M., Clark, D.M., & Lambe. S. (2022). Virtual reality (VR) therapy for patients with psychosis: satisfaction and side effects. Psychological Medicine. 

Gorisse, G., Senel, G., Banakou, D., Beacco, A., Oliva, R., Freeman, D., & Slater, M. (2021). Self-observation of a virtual body-double engaged in social interaction reduces persecutory thoughts. Scientific Reports, 11, 23923. 

Knight, I., West, J., Matthews, E., Kabir, T., Lambe, S., Waite, F., & Freeman, D. (2021). Participatory design to create a VR therapy for psychosis. Design for Health, 5, 98-119. 

McInerney, J., Brown, P., Bird, J.C., Nickless, A., Brown, G., & Freeman, D. (2021).  Does raising heart rate prior to a behavioural test enhance learning in cognitive therapy for anxiety? An experimental test for the treatment of fear of heights using virtual reality. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 144, 103928 

Bond, J., Robotham, D., Kenny, A., Pinfold, V., Kabir, T., Andleeb, H., Larkin, M., Martin, J., Brown, S., Bergin, A., Petit, A., Rosebrock, L., Lambe, S., Freeman, D., & Waite, F. (2021). Automated virtual reality cognitive therapy for people with psychosis: protocol for a qualitative investigation using peer research methods. JMIR Research Protocols, 10(10):e31742. 

Halldorsson, B., Hill, C., Waite, P., Partridge, K., Freeman, D., & Creswell, C.  (2021). Immersive virtual reality and digital applied gaming interventions for the treatment of mental health problems in children and young people: the need for rigorous treatment development and clinical evaluation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 62, 584-605. 

Brown, P., Waite, F., Rovira, A., Nickless, A., & Freeman, D. (2020). Virtual reality clinical-experimental tests of compassion treatment techniques to reduce paranoia. Scientific Reports, 10: 8547. 

Brown, P., Waite, F., Rovira, A., & Freeman, D. (2020). Power posing for paranoia: a double-blind randomized controlled experimental test using virtual reality. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 132, 103691. 

Brown, P., Waite, F., Lambe, S., Rosebrock, L., & Freeman, D. (2020). Virtual Reality Cognitive Therapy in Inpatient Psychiatric Wards: Protocol for a Qualitative Investigation of Staff and Patient Views Across Multiple National Health Service Sites. JMIR Research Protocols, 9(8), e20300. 

Lambe, S., Knight, I., Kabir, T., West, J., Patel, R., Lister R., Rosebrock, L., Rovira, A., Garnish, B., Freeman, J., Clark, D., Waite, F., & Freeman, D. (2020). Developing an automated VR cognitive treatment for psychosis: gameChange VR therapy. Journal of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapy, 30, 33-40. 

Freeman, D., Yu, L-M., Kabir, T., Martin, J., Craven, M., Leal, J., Lambe, S., Brown, S., Morrison, A., Chapman, K., Dudley, R., O’Regan, E., Rovira, A., Goodsell, A., Rosebrock, L., Bergin, A., Cryer, T., Robotham, D., Andleeb, H., Geddes, J., Hollis, C., Clark, D., & Waite, F. (2019). Automated virtual reality (VR) cognitive therapy for patients with psychosis: study protocol for a single-blind parallel group randomised controlled trial (gameChange). BMJ Open, 9:e031606.

Freeman, D., Lister, R., Waite, F., Yu, L.-M., Slater, M., Dunn, G., & Clark, D. (2019). Automated psychological therapy using virtual reality (VR) for patients with persecutory delusions: study protocol for a single-blind parallel-group randomised controlled trial (THRIVE). Trials, 20: 87.

Martens, M., Antley, A., Freeman, D., Slater, M., Harrison, P., Tunbridge, E. (2019). It feels real: physiological responses to a stressful virtual reality environment and its impact on working memory. Journal of Psychopharmacology.

Freeman D., Haselton P., Freeman J., Spanlang B., Kishore S., Albery E., Denne M., Brown P., Slater M., Nickless A. (2018). Automated psychological therapy using immersive virtual reality for the treatment of the fear of heights: a single-blind parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Lancet Psychiatry. 5: 625-632.

Freeman, D., Reeve, S., Robinson, A., Ehlers, A., Clark, D., Spanlang, B., & Slater, M. (2017). Virtual reality in the assessment, understanding, and treatment of mental health disorders. Psychological Medicine. 47: 2393-2400 

Freeman, D., Bradley, J., Antley, A., Bourke, E., DeWeever, N., Evans, N., Černis, E., Sheaves, B., Waite, F., Dunn, G., Slater, M., & Clark, D. (2016). Virtual reality in the treatment of persecutory delusions. British Journal of Psychiatry, 209, 62-67.

Atherton, S., Antley, A., Evans, N., Cernis, E., Lister, R., Dunn, G., Slater, M. & Freeman, D. (2016). Self-confidence and paranoia: an experimental study using an immersive virtual reality social situation. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 44, 56-64.

Freeman, D., Dunn, G., Murray, R., Evans, N., Lister, R., Antley, A., Slater, M., Godlewska, B., Cornish, R., Williams, J., Di Simplicio, M., Igoumenou, A., Brenneisen, R., Tunbridge, E., Harrison, P., Harmer, C., Cowen, P., Morrison, P. (2015). How cannabis causes paranoia: Using the intravenous administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to identify key cognitive mechanisms leading to paranoia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 41, 391-399.

Freeman, D., Evans, N., Lister, R., Antley, A., Dunn, G., & Slater, M. (2014). Height, social comparison, and paranoia: an immersive virtual reality experimental study. Psychiatry Research, 30, 348-352.

Freeman, D., Antley, A., Ehlers, A., Dunn, G., Thompson, C., Vorontsova, N., Garety, P., Kuipers, E., Glucksman, E., & Slater, M. (2014). The use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to predict the occurrence 6 months later of paranoid thinking and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by self-report and interviewer methods. Psychological Assessment, 36, 841-847.

Freeman, D., Thompson, C., Vorontsova, N., Dunn, G., Carter, L-A., Garety, P., Kuipers, E., Slater, M., Antley, A., Glucksman, E., & Ehlers, A. (2013). Paranoia and post-traumatic stress disorder in the months after a physical assault: a longitudinal study examining shared and differential predictors. Psychological Medicine, 43, 2673-2684.

Freeman, D., Pugh, K., Vorontsova, N., Antley, A. & Slater, M. (2010). Testing the continuum of delusional beliefs: an experimental study using virtual reality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 83–92.

Stinson, K., Valmaggia, L., Antley, A., Slater, M. & Freeman, D. (2010). Cognitive triggers of auditory hallucinations: an experimental investigation. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 179–184.

Freeman, D. (2008). Studying and treating schizophrenia using virtual reality (vr): a new paradigm. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 605-610.

Freeman, D., Gittins, M., Pugh, K., Antley, A., Slater, M., & Dunn, G. (2008). What makes one person paranoid and another person anxious? The differential prediction of social anxiety and persecutory ideation in an experimental situation. Psychological Medicine, 38, 1121-1132.

Freeman, D., Pugh, K., Antley, A., Slater, M., Bebbington, P., Gittins, M., Dunn, G., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., & Garety, P. A (2008). A virtual reality study of paranoid thinking in the general population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 258-263.

Fornells-Ambrojo, M., Barker, C., Swapp, D., Slater, M., Antley, A. & Freeman, D. (2008). Virtual reality and persecutory delusions: safety and feasibility. Schizophrenia Research, 104, 228-236.

Freeman, D., Pugh, K., Green, C., Valmaggia, L., Dunn, G., & Garety, P. (2007). A measure of state persecutory ideation for experimental studies. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195, 781-784.

Freeman, D., Garety, P.A., Bebbington, P., Slater, M., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., Green, C., Jordan, J., & Ray, K & Dunn, G., (2005). The psychology of persecutory ideation II: A virtual reality experimental study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193, 309-315.

Freeman, D., Slater, M., Bebbington, P.E., Garety, P.A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., Met, A., Read, C., Jordan, J., & Vinayagamoorthy, V. (2003). Can virtual reality be used to investigate persecutory ideation? The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191, 509-514.